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USB

 USB, is in English the Universal Serial Bus (USB), and the Chinese "cross" for short, is an external Bus standard, used in standard computer connections and communications with external devices.Technology is applied in the field of PC interface.USB plug and play support equipment and hot plug function.USB is at the end of 1994 by Intel, compaq, IBM, Microsoft and other companies combined.
There will be changes direction, the next generation of USB interface of the next generation of Type C - USB interface, can support plug, on both sides of the strong signal and transmit data, but the manufacturer co., LTD. (2014).[1]
history
From November 11, 1994 published the USB V0.7 version later, USB version has experienced years of development, has developed for version 3.1, standard extension interface in the computer in the 2020 s.Mainly used in the current main board USB1.1 and USB2.0, each can be a very good compatibility between USB version.USB with a 4 pin (see standard of 9 needle) as a standard plug, plug the Daisy chain form can connect all of the peripherals, up to 127 external devices can be connected, and not loss of bandwidth.USB need to host hardware, operating systems and peripherals support three aspects to work.In the 2020 s of the motherboard is generally using the chipset of supports USB function, also install a USB socket on the main board, and, except for the back of the socket on the motherboard have a USB pin reserved, can through the attachment received in front of the chassis as the front USB interface for use (note that should read carefully when wiring motherboard manual and press diagram wiring, never wrong and make the equipment damage).And USB interface can be controlled by special USB connect machine line to realize the interconnection of two, and can be extended by the Hub out more interface.USB has the transmission speed (USB1.1 is 12 MBPS, USB2.0 is 480 megabits per second, start is 5 Gbps), easy to use, support hot plug, flexible connection, independent power supply etc, and can connect the mouse, keyboard, printer, scanner, camera, USB flash disk, MP3 players, mobile phones, digital cameras, mobile hard disk, floppy disk, USB external light card, ADSL Modem, Cable Modem, etc., almost all the external devices.
Theoretically the USB interface can be used to connect up to 127 peripherals, such as a mouse, a modem and a keyboard.USB since its launch in 1996, has been successfully replace serial and parallel ports, and become the personal computer in the 2020 s and a lot of intelligent device will match one of the interfaces.

USB versions

Maximum transmission rate

The title of the rate

Maximum Output Curren

Launch date

USB1.0  

1.5Mbps(192KB/s)  

(Low-Speed)  

500mA  

In January 1996

USB1.1  

12Mbps(1.5MB/s)  

(Full-Speed)  

500mA  

In September 1998

USB2.0  

480Mbps(60MB/s)  

(High-Speed)  

500mA  

In April 2000

USB3.0  

5-10Gbps(640MB/s)  

(Super-Speed)  

900mA  

In November 2008


Development
USB1.1
       USB was originally initiated by Intel and Microsoft company, its biggest characteristic is to support hot plug and plug and play.When the device into the host detects the device and load the driver, so using than PCI and ISA bus is convenient.USB specification

The topology of the USB
Is the first time in 1995 by Intel, IBM, Compaq, Microsoft, NEC, Digital, North composed of seven companies such as Telecom USBIF (USB Implement Forum) is put forward, together USBIF in January 1996 formally put forward USB1.0 specifications, the frequency width of 12 megabits per second. But because at that time, little support USB peripheral device, so the motherboard makers don't design the USB Port directly on the motherboard.The popularity of an external USB device and demand.In September 1998, USBIF proposed to revise USB1.0 USB1.1 specification, main revised technical details, but the transmission bandwidth is changeless, still to 12 MBPS.USB1.1 downward compatible with USB1.0, so for the general consumer, and sense the specification of USB1.1 and USB1.0 differences.USB1.1 maximum transmission rate of 12 MBPS, namely the "Full - Speed USB" USB2.0 standard, some vendors will be its products labeled "USB2.0 Full - Speed".Attention not to "(Full Speed) at Full Speed" to "High Speed (High - Speed)," the real USB2.0 High -speed transmission rate is highest 480 MBPS.
USB 2.0
USB is a new interface technology application in the field of computer.As early as in 1995, has a personal computer with a USB interface, but due to lack of support of software and hardware equipment, these idle unused PC USB interface.In 1998 years later, with Microsoft Windows 98 built-in support for USB interface module, and USB devices become more and more, USB interface gradually entered the practical stage.
Since the 2020 s, with the popularity of a large amount of support USB PC, USB gradually become the standard of personal computers is the trend of The Times.In the host, the latest PC almost 100% support USB;In the peripheral end, using USB interface equipment, such as digital camera, scanner, joysticks, tapes and floppy disk, image equipment, printer, keyboard, mouse and so on.
USB device known as a large number of applications, mainly has the following advantages:
1, can be hot plug.That let users in the use of an external device, no need to repeat the "shutdown will be parallel or serial cable connected to it" such action, but directly in front of the computer at work, you can use the USB cable.
2, easy to carry.USB device with "small, light, thin" mostly, for the user, the same 20 g of hard disk, USB hard drive is lighter than the IDE hard disk half the weight of the want to carry a large amount of data, USB hard drive will be the first choice of course.
3, unified standard.Everyone's common IDE hard disk, mouse and keyboard of the serial port, parallel printers, scanners, but after a USB, all these application peripherals connected to the PC can use the same standards, then there will be a USB hard drive, USB mouse, USB printer etc.
4, can connect to multiple devices.On personal computers often have multiple USB interface, can be connected to several devices at the same time, if there are four USB ports connected to a HUB, can again connected;Four USB devices, and so on, can even go down, will your equipment at the same time, even on a personal computer and there is no problem (note: the highest can be connected to 127 devices).But, why again USB2.0?It with USB1.1 and have why to distinguish?Please don't worry, the following is meeting here.

2.0 specification
Note:  this article said megabits per second per second "one million", is not our daily use of "megabytes per second.A byte is eight bits.
Here it is necessary to clarify the origin of the USB2.0 specification.USB2.0 specification is by Hewlett Packard, Compaq, Intel, Lucent, Microsoft, NEC, Philips make joint release, the peripheral data transmission speed increased to 480 MBPS, 40 times that of a USB 1.1 device!But new USB 2.0 standard in accordance with the original plan is going to put this standard set at 240 MBPS, later, after efforts to increase it to 480 MBPS.
Since 2000, the standards have changed, the USB specification creates three speed selection: 12 Mbps, 480 Mbps, 1.5 megabits per second.And in June 2003, after the USB2.0 standard gradually thorough popular feeling, renamed the USB specification and standard USB association, perhaps when USB association move just in order to uniform standard without chaos, but maybe didn't expect this standard USB association for flash drive and MP3 market caused a mess.
Rename the USB standard change original USB 1.1 to the USB 2.0 Full Speed (Full version), at the same time, the original USB 2.0 changed to USB 2.0 High - Speed (High Speed), and at the same time unveiled a new identity.Of course it goes without saying that the version of the USB 2.0 faster than the full version of USB 2.0.
The USB device is used widely, but common USB1.1 interface, its transmission speed is 12 MBPS.For example, when you use USB1.1 scanner sweep a picture of a size to 40 m, need half a minute at a time.This speed, let users feel very inconvenient, if you have several pictures to sweep, have to be patient to wait.
The needs of users, is the impetus to the development of science and technology, manufacturers are also recognized the bottleneck.At that time, COMPAQ, Hewlett Packard, Intel, Lucent, Microsoft, NEC and PHILIPS the seven companies jointly formulated the standard USB 2.0 interface.USB 2.0 the speed of data transmission between devices has increased to 480 MBPS, around 40 times faster than USB 1.1 standard, the speed of increase for the user's biggest advantage is that means that the user can use to a more efficient external devices, and has a variety of speed of peripheral devices can be connected to the USB 2.0 on a line, and don't have to worry about data transmission bottleneck effect.
So, if you use USB 2.0 scanner, is completely different, and a picture of a 40 m just around half a second of time, the twinkling of an eye on the past, the efficiency is greatly increased.
It goes without saying that the 21st century 20 years on the market a lot of flash drive and MP3 with USB 2.0, is actually the original USB1.1, by USB association named the Full Speed USB version.Only 12 MBPS speed, and high speed version of the 480 MBPS have a large gap.
And USB2.0 can use the original the same specifications of the cable, USB the definition of the specifications of the joint are identical, on the premise of high speed to keep the good character of the USB 1.1, and USB 2.0 devices not and USB 1 X devices in common use when there is any conflict.
USB 2.0 support operating system:
Microsoft Windows 8【RT version may not be compatible with】
Microsoft Windows 7
Microsoft Windows Server 2008
Microsoft Windows vista
Microsoft Windows Server 2003
Microsoft WindowsXP(all versions)
Microsoft Windows 2000(ensure that installed the latest service pack)
Microsoft Windows 98SE
Microsoft Windows Me
 

To enable the USB 2.0:
1.System restart (or electricity).
2.In the process of the POST (plus electricity self-inspection) press "F2", enter the system BIOS setup.
3.Use the arrow keys (to the left and right) select "advanced" menu.
4.Select the USB configuration "and press < Enter >;.
5.Enable "high-speed USB".
6.Press the "F10" save and exit the BIOS setup.(high speed USB 2.0 controller in the boot is enabled, the next time the normal boot cycle, the operating system should detect the new hardware.
Generally there are few dedicated data line, and common phenomenon is a common to a variety of mobile phone models, data line some type of cable is exaggerated, a line can use 30-40 different types of mobile phones.
21st century 20 years, cable seller problems is generally customers reflect the data line can't use, if you sure the delivery no hair wrong, most of customers will not use the data line.First look at the CD software support the customer's phone models, if you don't support can go online to download a corresponding software, this problem solved.Key point: cable is universal, the software is not universal.Currently has no special good method, after all, too many phone models.
Data transfer rate
1,the data transmission rate has nothing to do with thickness;
2, multimedia card reader of the transmission rate and transmission rate of the data line speed depending on the card reader and card interface.USB 2.0 40 times faster than USB1.1 interface;
3, multimedia card read card rate generally read card is faster than write a card.

USB 3.0
Intel corporation (Intel) and industry leading companies formed a USB 3.0 promotion group, hand in hand together to develop at a faster rate than the super-efficient USB interconnect technology ten times today.The technology is made by Intel and hewlett-packard (HP), NEC, NXP semiconductors and ti (Texas Instruments) company to jointly develop, such as application areas including PC, consumer and mobile products fast real-time transmission.Along with the rising popularity of digital media, as well as increasing transfer files, even more than 25 gb, fast real-time transmission has become the necessary performance requirements.[5]
USB 3.0 has backward compatibility standards, and combines traditional USB technology usability and plug and play function.The technology aims to launch more than 10 times faster than current connection level products, with the USB cable of the same architecture.In addition to USB 3.0 specification is optimized to achieve the lower power consumption and higher efficiency, the agreement of USB 3.0 port and cable can achieve backward compatibility, and support for the future of optical fiber transmission.
"Logically USB 3.0 will become the next generation of the most popular PC cable connected parties

Micro USB cables, a figure
Type ", Intel technology strategist Jeff Ravencraft said, "the performance of the digital age requires high speed and reliable connected to achieve large amount of data transmission in everyday life.USB 3.0 is a good way to cope with the challenge, and continue to provide the user has used the USB ease of use and continue to look forward to experience."
Intel company was founded at the beginning of the USB 3.0 promotion group wants the USB design institute (USB - IF) can be used as a USB 3.0 specifications of the industry association.The complete USB 3.0 specification is expected to be launched in the first half of 2008, the USB 3.0 preliminary will be in the form of discrete silicon.
USB 3.0 promotion group, including HP, Intel, NEC, NXP semiconductors and Texas instruments, working to protect existing USB device driver infrastructure and investment, the appearance of the USB and the characteristics of convenient use, at the same time continue to recognize the function of USB this excellent technology.
"We support for USB 2.0 and wireless USB technology highlights the HP is committed to providing customers with reliable peripherals connected way", HP is responsible for the printing imaging and Consumer market department (Consumer Inkjet Solutions), vice President of Phil Schultz says, "with the help of a USB 3.0 now, we will create for the customer printers, digital cameras and other peripheral equipment and personal computer connected a better experience."
"Intel in the development and adoption of two generations of USB technology are one of the leading enterprises in the industry, has now become the most popular USB peripheral interface calculation and handheld electronic devices, Intel's senior vice President and general manager, general manager of digital enterprise group pat kissinger (Patrick Gelsinger) said," because of the market development to support customer demand for large data storage and transmission, we hope to develop the third generation of USB technology, can make use of existing USB interface and carries on the optimization to meet those needs."
"Since the first installation of USB cable, NEC has been supporters of the USB technology", NEC electronics department, general manager of SoC system Katsuhiko Itagaki said, "now it is time to further develop the already successful Internet interface in order to meet the market demand for large data transfer speed higher, as far as possible to shorten the waiting time for users."
"NXP I'm glad to cooperate with other top firms to promote the world's leading Internet technology to meet the needs of the next generation of peripheral equipment", NXP semiconductors commercial Internet Entertainment (Business Line Connected Entertainment) strategy and Business development director Pierre - Yves Couteau said, "as a USB leading semiconductor solutions provider, NXP is committed to promoting the standardization and application of ultra-high speed USB."
"With high speed USB in personal computing, consumer electronics, and the popularity of mobile within the various market segments, we expect the USB 3.0 will quickly replace the USB port become a DE facto standard in the field of high bandwidth applications", Texas instruments, W

Micro USB cables, a figure
 Mobile phone micro USB cable wiring diagram
Orldwide ASIC vice President Greg Hantak said, "Texas instruments very excited USB 3.0 outstanding performance will further expand the application field of USB and bring a better experience for users."
About the USB design institute (Universal Serial Bus Implementers Forum)
Non-profit organization USB design BBS (USB - IF) established aim is to support the development and popularization of USB technology.Through its identification and certification program, USB - IF to provide high quality, compatibility, USB device development assistance, USB - IF also vigorously promote the advantage of USB, and through the certification of the quality of the products.
standard
By Intel, Microsoft, HP, Texas instruments, NEC, ST - NXP composed of giants such as USB 3.0 Promoter Group in the 2008-11-18 day, announced that the organization be responsible for the formulation of a new generation of USB 3.0 standard has been formally completed and released.New specification provides 10 times the USB 2.0 transmission speed and higher energy efficiency, which can be widely used in PC peripherals and consumer electronics.
Completion of the USB 3.0 standard management USB Implementers of this specification has been handed over to the Forum (hereinafter referred to as USB - IF).The group will work with hardware vendors, to jointly develop new hardware support USB 3.0 standard, but the actual product have to wait for a period of time.
 USB 1.0 is the first edition in 1996, only 1.5 Mbps speed;Upgraded to a USB 1.1 two years later, speed also greatly promoted to 12 MBPS, still on the part of the old equipment can also see this kind of standard interface;In April 2000, the 21st century twenty years widely used USB 2.0, speed up to 480 MBPS, four times that of USB 1.1;Now eight and A half years have passed, the speed of USB 2.0 is already unable to meet the needs of the application, USB 3.0 also arises at the historic moment, the largest up to 5.0 Gbps, transmission bandwidth is 625 MB/s, at the same time when using A type of interface compatible downward.
IEEE also approved a new standard IEEE1394-2008, but the new FireWire only 3.2 Gb/s transmission rate, a little more than 60% of USB 3.0.It is no wonder that apple industry manufacturers such as universal lose interest in the technology.
USB 2.0 based on half duplex two wire bus, can only provide one-way transmission data flow, and USB 3.0 using the dual simplex four wire difference signal lines, and support the bidirectional concurrent data flow transmission, which is the key to a surge in new specification speed.
In addition, USB 3.0 also introduces a new power management mechanism, support standby, dormancy and suspended state.
 

 Measuring instruments company teck (Tektronix) first announced last month for USB 3.0 testing tool, can help developers to verify compatibility between the new specifications and hardware design.
USB 3.0 application in real devices will be referred to as "USB SuperSpeed", comply with the previous USB 1.1 FullSpeed HighSpeed and USB 2.0.Is expected to support the new specification of commercial controller will come out in the second half of 2009, the consumer products to market in 2010.
USB 3.0 logo figure
� management organization USB Implementers of this specification to the Forum (hereinafter referred to as USB - IF).The group will work with hardware vendors, to jointly develop new hardware support USB 3.0 standard, but the actual product have to wait for a period of time.
USB 1.0 is the first edition in 1996, only 1.5 Mbps speed;Upgraded to a USB 1.1 two years later, speed also greatly promoted to 12 MBPS, still on the part of the old equipment can also see this kind of standard interface;In April 2000, the 21st century twenty years widely used USB 2.0, speed up to 480 MBPS, four times that of USB 1.1;Now eight and A half years have passed, the speed of USB 2.0 is already unable to meet the needs of the application, USB 3.0 also arises at the historic moment, the largest up to 5.0 Gbps, transmission bandwidth is 625 MB/s, at the same time when using A type of interface compatible downward.

USB 3.0 logo figure
USB 3.0 double bus architecture diagram
Communication layer and power management features
Standard - A type of interface size figure
Standard - A type of the mouth, the mouth physical simulation diagram
Standard size chart - type B interface
Micro miniature interface dimension drawing
Cable structure
Joint cable section diagram
 

USB 3.0 standard interface and cable samples
USB 3.1
   USB 3.1 standard issued in 2013.Nothing changes new standards in terms of interfaces, but it can provide the two times the speed of USB 3.0 (10 GBPS), as well as downward compatible USB 2.0.[6]       
According to reports in the USB power transmission version 2.0 specification, there is a AlternateMode extension specification, this specification can support in the USB cable, signal transmission of electricity.
Such, DisplayPort interface AltMode mode, will be able to use the new USB cable to one, two, or four transport channel, to transmit audio DisplayPort video signal.Most importantly, audio and video signal transmission and power transmission, can simultaneously.
According to the industry pointed out that the new USB interface of the function, will be able to create a similar Intel Thunder Bolt is a new interface, the function of the support more diverse, but also need relevant manufacturers in cooperation with the physical plane.

The new USB port
Media pointed out that the Type - C USB interface, may become a future dominated by the cable, replace all of the power transmission cable, audio video transmission.
According to VESA society, through the corresponding adapter, a new version of the USB interface, in addition to the DisplayPort video interface, can even support HDMI, DVI, and VGA video signal transmission.
Is known to all, tablets, smart phones, laptops, do more and more small, space for external interface is more and more limited, if by a "functional" USB interface, can achieve a variety of signal transmission, the industry will benefit from the infinite.
At present, the new Type - CUSB interface has not been actually put into use or sale, about this new interface specification complete, the support of both the front and back of the card insert to xinjiekou, is about to be applied to electronic products.

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